Volume 1.17 | Jul 10

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.17 July 10, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
Researchers Report New Source of Powerful Immunity Protein
Researchers report the identification of a new cellular source for an important disease-fighting protein used in the body’s earliest response to infection. The protein interferon-gamma keeps viruses from replicating and stimulates the immune system to produce other disease-fighting agents. [Press release from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center discussing online prepublication in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA] Press Release | Abstract
A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Co-Administration of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine and MVA-NP+M1 Simultaneously Achieves Potent Humoral and Cell Mediated Responses
The authors conducted a phase I clinical trial to compare co-administration of seasonal influenza vaccine and MVA-NP+M1, to seasonal influenza vaccine alone in adults aged 50 years and over. This combination of vaccines was safe and well tolerated. T cell responses to internal influenza proteins were boosted to significantly higher levels in the group receiving MVA-NP+M1 compared to the group receiving seasonal influenza vaccine alone. [Mol Ther] Abstract

Recombinant ESAT-6-CFP10 Fusion Protein Induction of Th1/Th2 Cytokines and FoxP3 Expressing Treg Cells in Pulmonary TB
Scientists aimed to characterize Th1, Th2 and Treg responses to r early secretory antigenic target-6-culture filtrate protein 10 (rESAT-6-CFP10) fusion protein in tuberculosis (TB) patients before and during the intensive phase of treatment and in healthy M.bovis BCG vaccinated donors. [PLoS One] Full Article

Dormancy Associated Translation Inhibitor (DATIN/Rv0079) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Interacts with TLR2 and Induces Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression
The function of most of the dormancy survival regulon (DosR regulon) proteins of M. tuberculosis is unknown. Researchers showed that one of the DosR regulon proteins, DATIN, encoded by the gene Rv0079, can stimulate macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete important cytokines that may be significant in granuloma formation and its maintenance. [Cytokine] Abstract

Differential Response of BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3+ Myeloid Dendritic Cells to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
Myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) play a pivotal role in shaping antiviral immune responses in the respiratory tract; however, few studies have examined the interactions between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and individual mDC subsets. The authors examined the effect of RSV on the functional response of primary mDC subsets (BDCA-1+ and BDCA-3+) isolated from peripheral blood. [Respir Res] Abstract | Full Article

HIV

Natural Killer Cells in HIV Controller Patients Express an Activated Effector Phenotype and Do Not Up-Regulate NKp44 on IL-2 Stimulation
Investigators studied the expression of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp46, NKp30, and NKp44) and their induction over a short time frame on activation of natural killer (NK) cells in 31 HIV controller patients (15 elite controllers, 16 long-term nonprogressors). [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Expression of Inhibitory Markers Is Increased on Effector Memory T Cells during Hepatitis C Virus/HIV Coinfection as Compared to Hepatitis C Virus or HIV Monoinfection
Hepatitis C virus/HIV coinfection is associated with rapid progression of hepatic fibrosis and liver disease. T-cell response has been implicated in the pathophysiological outcome of the disease. Scientists evaluated the role of memory T-cell exhaustion in enhancing immune dysfunction during coinfection. [AIDS] Abstract

Endothelial Cell Stimulation Overcomes Restriction and Promotes Productive and Latent HIV-1 Infection of Resting CD4+ T Cells
Researchers found that stimulation by endothelial cells can render resting CD4+ T cells permissible for direct HIV infection, including both productive and latent infection. These stimulated T cells remain largely phenotypically un-activated and show a lower death rate than activated T cells, which promotes the survival of infected cells. [J Virol] Abstract

Improving Adaptive and Memory Immune Responses of an HIV/AIDS Vaccine Candidate MVA-B by Deletion of Vaccinia Virus Genes (C6L and K7R) Blocking Interferon Signaling Pathways
To improve the immunogenicity elicited by Poxvirus vector Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (termed MVA-B), the authors generated and characterized the innate immune sensing and the in vivo immunogenicity profile of a vector with a double deletion in two vaccinia virus genes (C6L and K7R) coding for inhibitors of interferon signaling pathways. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Pathogenesis of Chronic Viral Hepatitis: Differential Roles of T Cells and NK Cells
This review summarizes the authors’ current understanding of the roles of antigen-specific and nonspecific immune cells in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B and C and discusses recent findings that identify natural killer (NK) cells as regulators of T cell function and liver inflammation. [Nat Med] Abstract

Current Progress in Development of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines
The lack of robust and convenient model systems further hampers the effort to develop an effective hepatitis C vaccine. Advances in the authors’ understanding of virus-host interactions and protective immunity in hepatitis C virus infection provide an important roadmap to develop potent and broadly directed vaccine candidates targeting both humoral and cellular immune responses. [Nat Med] Abstract

Virus Interactions with Endocytic Pathways in Macrophages and Dendritic Cells
The authors review mechanisms by which viruses subvert endocytic and pathogen-sensing functions of macrophages and dendritic cells, while highlighting possible strategic advantages of infecting cells normally tuned into pathogen destruction. [Trends Microbiol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Calimmune Initiates HIV Stem Cell Study at Two California Research Sites
Calimmune announced that the first patient has begun treatment in a Phase I/II clinical trial designed to determine whether a pioneering genetic medicine approach can help to protect individuals infected with HIV from the effects of the virus. The study, “Safety Study of a Dual Anti-HIV Gene Transfer Construct to Treat HIV-1 Infection,” utilizes a gene medicine called Cal-1, developed in the lab of Nobel Laureate Dr. David Baltimore and by Calimmune. [Calimmune] Press Release

Immune Design and Medicago Announce License Agreement and Collaboration to Develop Novel Adjuvanted Pandemic Influenza Vaccines
Immune Design and Medicago Inc. announced that they have entered a license agreement providing Medicago the use and commercialization of Immune Design’s proprietary synthetic Toll-like Receptor 4 agonist, Glucopyranosyl Lipid A. Medicago has the option to use Immune Design’s molecular adjuvant in its vaccines for various pandemic influenza strains. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free Nature Reviews Immunology poster – Immune Response to HIV. Request a copy.
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Sixth International Workshop on HIV Persistence during Therapy
December 3-6, 2013
Miami, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – HIV-Related Virology and Immunology (Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Innate Immunity in Control of Viral Infection and in Regulating Adaptive Immunity (University of California, Riverside)

Postdoctoral Position – Virus Host Interactions (CIBIO – University of Trento)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Humoral Responses against HIV (Seattle BioMed)

Postdoctoral Position – Complement System in Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Research Scientist/Senior Research Officer – Monoclonal Antibodies (Bioprocessing Technology Institute/A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology Research (National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Responses against HIV (HIV Pathogenesis Program/University KwaZulu Natal & Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Junior or Senior Group Leader – Immunology/Infection/Inflammation (Center of Pathophysiology of Toulouse Purpan)


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