Volume 1.16 | Jul 3

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.16 July 3, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Bacterial Colonization Dampens Influenza-Mediated Acute Lung Injury via Induction of M2 Alveolar Macrophages
Investigators showed that specific pathogen-free mice are more sensitive to influenza-mediated death than mice living in a natural environment. Priming with Toll-like receptor 2-ligand+ Staphylococcus aureus, which commonly colonizes the upper respiratory mucosa, significantly attenuates influenza-mediated lung immune injury. [Nat Commun] Full Article
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Francisella tularensis SchuS4 and SchuS4 Lipids Inhibit IL-12p40 in Primary Human Dendritic Cells by Inhibition of IRF1 and IRF8
Scientists demonstrated that lipids enriched from virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4, but not attenuated live vaccine strain, inhibit inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Suppression of inflammatory responses is associated with IκBα-independent inhibition of NF-κBp65 activation and selective inhibition of activation of IFN regulatory factors.[J Immunol] Abstract

Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages during Influenza Infection Facilitates Bacterial Superinfections
PKH26-phagocytic cell labeling dye was administered intranasally to label resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) in a well-established murine model before influenza infection to determine turnover kinetics during the course of infection. More than 90% of resident AMs were lost in the first week after influenza, whereas the remaining cells had a necrotic phenotype. To establish the impact of this innate immune defect, influenza-infected mice were challenged with S. pneumoniae. [J Immunol] Abstract

IFN-γ Production by CD27+ NK Cells Exacerbates Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Mice by Inhibiting Granulocyte Mobilization
Researchers demonstrated that during lethal infection by Listeria monocytogenes, activation of NK cells via the co-stimulatory molecule CD27 leads to excessive IFN-γ production. This impairs innate anti-bacterial host defenses by inducing down-regulation of CXCR2 on granulocytes and consequently inhibiting their recruitment to the sites of infection. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Tripartite Immune Cell Co-Operation in the Bacillus Calmette Guérin-Induced Activation of γδ T Cells
The authors demonstrated a novel mechanism by which human Vδ2+ γδ T cells are activated by the model pathogen Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG). They showed in vitro that Vδ2 cell cytokine production and cytotoxic activity in response to BCG are dependent on both dendritic cells and memory CD4+ αβ T cells. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

CD4+FoxP3+ T Regulatory Cells in Drug-Susceptible and Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
Scientists compared circulatory Regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies in drug susceptible (DS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) before and after anti-TB treatment. Circulatory Treg frequencies were measured in blood samples from 33 DS TB, seven mycobacterial culture-positive active MDR TB, 16 stable MDR TB who had been culture negative for at least 6 months, and 14 healthy controls before and after treatment. [Tuberculosis] Abstract

HIV

Acting Locally: Innate Mucosal Immunity in Resistance to HIV-1 Infection in Kenyan Commercial Sex Workers
Cohort studies of female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Kenya were among the first to identify highly HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals. As natural resistance is usually mediated by innate immune mechanisms, the authors focused on determining whether expression and function of innate signaling pathways were altered locally in the genital mucosa of HESN CSWs. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Graft Versus Tumor Effect after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in HIV-Positive Patients with High Risk Hematologic Malignancies
Investigators report on four HIV-infected patients with hematological malignancies receiving an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) in their institution, and on the use of donor lymphocyte infusions to successfully treat post-Allo-HSCT relapse. Of note, one of them is the first HIV+ patient to receive a “dual transplant” (unrelated umbilical cord blood stem cells combined with mobilized T-cell depleted CD34+ stem cells from a mismatched third party donor). [AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses] Abstract

Differential Regulatory T Cell Activity in HIV-1-Exposed Seronegative Individuals
To assess the presence of HIV-specific T cell responses and regulatory T cells (Treg) function, scientists measured the proliferation of T cells in response to HIV-1 peptide pools in PBMCs and PBMCs depleted of Tregs. They identified HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and surprisingly, the overall CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response rate was not increased when Tregs were removed from cell preparations. [AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Biofilm Switch and Immune Response Determinants at Early Stages of Infection
The authors discuss cyclic dinucleotides signaling and the host immune response in the context of the initial steps of in vivo biofilm development. [Trends Microbiol] Abstract

Innate Immune Responses against Epstein Barr Virus Infection
The authors discuss the intrinsic immunity in Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells, as well as innate immune responses by DCs and NK cells, which constitute promising immune compartments for the understanding of early immune control against EBV and potential targets for EBV-specific immunotherapies. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
German Researchers Report Case of ‘Functional Cure’ after Very Early HIV Treatment
Another case of prolonged control of HIV replication after stopping treatment has been reported, indicating that cases of post-treatment control of HIV are not confined to the French VISCONTI cohort. The case involves a 67-year-old German man who probably acquired HIV in the summer of 1999 through sexual transmission. [Press release NAM Publications discussing research presented at the 7th International AIDS Society conference (IAS) 2013, Kuala Lumpur] Press Release | Conference Abstract

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INDUSTRY NEWS
UGA Receives $3.4 Million Gates Foundation Grant to Fight Infectious Disease
The University of Georgia (UGA) Research Foundation received a $3.4 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to expand its operational research on how best to eliminate schistosomiasis, a debilitating and neglected tropical disease affecting millions of people in countries throughout much of Africa, Asia, the Middle East and the Americas. This recent award adds to an $18.7 million grant awarded to UGA by the Gates Foundation in 2008, bringing the funding total to more than $22 million. [University of Georgia]
Press Release


Boosting Immunity – and Vaccine Research
Vaccination has achieved huge success in controlling many devastating infectious diseases. However, there are still many such diseases, or ‘pathogens’, against which we cannot generate life-long protective immunity. On the eve of Croatia’s accession to the EU, Professor Stipan Jonjic’s research into new vaccines to offer better protection is already underway. Prof Jonjic is the first Croatian European Research Council grantee to base his project in Croatia. [European Commission] Press Release

Stem-Cell Transplants May Purge HIV
Two men with HIV may have been cured after they received stem-cell transplants to treat the blood cancer lymphoma, their doctors announced at the International AIDS Society Conference in Kuala Lumpur. One of the men received stem-cell transplants to replace his blood-cell-producing bone marrow about three years ago, and the other five years ago. Their regimens were similar to one used on Timothy Ray Brown, the ‘Berlin patient’ who has been living HIV-free for six years and is the only adult to have been declared cured of HIV. [Nature News] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW The Viral Hepatitis Congress 2013
September 26-28, 2013
Frankfurt, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Virus Host Interactions (CIBIO – University of Trento)

NEW Postdoctoral Scientist – Humoral Responses against HIV (Seattle BioMed)

Postdoctoral Position – Complement System in Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Research Scientist/Senior Research Officer – Monoclonal Antibodies (Bioprocessing Technology Institute/A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology Research (National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Responses against HIV (HIV Pathogenesis Program/University KwaZulu Natal & Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Infectious Diseases (St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital)

Junior or Senior Group Leader – Immunology/Infection/Inflammation (Center of Pathophysiology of Toulouse Purpan)


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