Volume 1.14 | Jun 19

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.14 June 19, 2013
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     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Extramedullary Myelopoiesis in Malaria Depends on Mobilization of Myeloid-Restricted Progenitors by IFN-γ Induced Chemokines
The authors report the isolation of the earliest myeloid-restricted progenitors in acute infection with the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. The rapid disappearance of these infection-induced myeloid progenitors from the bone marrow (BM) equated with contraction of the functional myeloid potential in that organ. The loss of BM myelopoiesis was not affected by the complete genetic inactivation of toll-like receptor signaling. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Zinc Finger Protein ZBTB20 Promotes Toll-Like Receptor-Triggered Innate Immune Responses by Repressing IκBα Gene Transcription
Investigators found that myeloid cell-specific ZBTB20 KO mice were resistant to endotoxin shock and Escherichia coli-caused sepsis. ZBTB20 deficiency attenuated toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFN in macrophages, which attributed to higher abundance of IκBa protein and impaired activity of NF-κB. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Vitamin D Induces Interleukin-1ß Expression: Paracrine Macrophage Epithelial Signaling Controls M. tuberculosis Infection
As macrophages are the primary site of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and are sites of vitamin D signaling, scientists used these cells to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying modulation of the immune response by the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. They found that the virulent Mtb strain H37Rv elicits a broad host transcriptional response. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Suppression of Host Adaptive Immune Responses by Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Role of Interleukin 10 and Type 1 Regulatory T Cells
Investigators showed that N. gonorrhoeae strongly induced the production of interleukin (IL)-10 and type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells. Blockade of IL-10 and Tr1 cell activity enhanced both T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th2-dependent adaptive immune responses and Th17-governed innate responses to N. gonorrhoeae. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Therapeutic DNA Vaccination Using In Vivo Electroporation Followed by Standard of Care Therapy in Patients with Genotype 1 Chronic Hepatitis C
Clearance of infections caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) correlates with HCV-specific T cell function. Scientists therefore evaluated therapeutic vaccination in 12 patients with chronic HCV infection. [Mol Ther] Full Article

NK Cells Improve Control of Friend Virus Infection in Mice Persistently Infected with Murine Cytomegalovirus
Scientists showed that a persistent murine CMV (mCMV) infection surprisingly confers higher resistance to a primary Friend retrovirus infection (FV) of mice. Decreased FV titers and augmented FV-specific CD8 T-cell responses were found in mCMV infected mice during primary FV superinfection. NK cells produced higher amounts of IFNgamma after FV infection of persistently mCMV infected mice suggesting that these cells were involved in the ‘protective’ effect. [Retrovirology] Abstract | Full Article

HIV

Cryptococcosis-IRIS Is Associated with Lower Cryptococcus-Specific IFN-Gamma Responses before Antiretroviral Therapy but Not Higher T-Cell Responses during Therapy
Cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS) may be driven by aberrant T-cell responses to cryptococcal antigens. Researchers investigated this in HIV-infected patients with treated cryptococcal meningitis who commenced combination antiretroviral therapy. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Higher Expression of Several Interferon-Stimulated Genes in HIV-1-Infected Females after Adjusting for the Level of Viral Replication
Investigators assessed whether elevated levels of HIV-1-induced interferon (IFN)-α production observed in females are associated with higher IFN-stimulated gene expression levels in T-cells, hence suggesting type-I-IFN as a mechanism for the higher HIV-1-associated immune activation observed. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

High Levels of CD2 Expression Identify HIV-1 Latently Infected Resting Memory CD4+ T Cells in Virally Suppressed Subjects
The authors identified 33 transcripts encoding cell surface markers that are differentially expressed between latently infected and uninfected cells. RT-QPCR and flow cytometry analyses confirmed that the surface marker CD2 was expressed at higher levels on latently HIV infected cells. To validate this result in vivo, they sorted resting memory CD4+ T cells expressing high and low surface levels of CD2 from six HIV-1 subjects successfully treated with antiretroviral drugs for at least three years. [J Virol] Abstract

HIV-1 Nef Interacts with HCV Core, Recruits TRAF2, TRAF5 and TRAF6, and Stimulates HIV-1 Replication in Macrophages
Scientists observed that human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Nef interacts with hepatitis C virus (HCV) Core. The activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) (2, 5, 6) – mediated by HIV-1 Nef and HCV Core -enhanced the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B and increased HIV-1 replication in monocyte- derived macrophages. [J Innate Immun] Abstract

Shaping T Cell – B Cell Collaboration in the Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Glycoprotein gp120 by Peptide Priming
Protein and peptide-specific immune responses to HIV-1 gp120 were characterized in groups of ten mucosally immunized BALB/c mice. Protein and peptide reactivity of serum antibody was tested for correlation with cytokine secretion by splenocytes restimulated with individual gp120 peptides. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS

Immune Interventions in HIV Infection
This review summarizes the rationale, hopes, and mechanisms of successes and failures of cytokine-based and vaccine-based immune interventions. Results from these first series of immune-based therapies have been so far somewhat disappointing in terms of clinical relevance, but have provided lessons that are discussed in light of the future combined strategies to be developed toward an HIV cure. [Immunol Rev] Abstract

Vaccine Strategies to Enhance Immune Responses in the Aged
In the past decade, tremendous efforts have been put toward improving the influenza vaccine for the elderly. The authors therefore use this example to present various strategies employed to overcome these age-associated immune defects and hence make vaccines more efficacious for the aged. [Curr Opin Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

INDUSTRY NEWS

NIH Fellowship Helps Researcher Fight Malaria, Understand Mosquito Immunity
A Kansas State University research associate has received a prestigious fellowship to support his research on mosquitoes and ways to prevent the spread of malaria. Bart Bryant, research associate in biology, has received the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) National Research Service Award Individual Postdoctoral Fellowship, which provides $113,000 for two years. [Kansas State University] Press Release

Colorado State University Researchers Launch Novel Investigation into Tuberculosis Transmission

Researchers at Colorado State University are launching the most realistic study ever conducted into how transmission of the tuberculosis pathogen triggers infectious disease, an investigation expected to yield new insights into a disease that attacks the lungs and kills some 1.5 million people worldwide each year. [Colorado State University] Press Release

UBC Researchers Team Up with Chinese Biotech Firm to Accelerate Infectious Disease, Cancer Research
UBC researchers with Microbiology and Immunology, Chemistry and the Centre for Blood Research have partnered with an international investment company and a Chinese biotechnology firm to  accelerate the development of new treatments for a variety of diseases. [University of British Columbia] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS
NEW LT3 – 3rd International Lymphoid Tissue Meeting
September 15-17, 2013
Rotterdam, Netherlands

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
JOB OPPORTUNITIES

NEW Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

NEW Research Scientist/Senior Research Officer – Monoclonal Antibodies (Bioprocessing Technology Institute/A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology Research (National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Responses against HIV (HIV Pathogenesis Program/University KwaZulu Natal & Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Infectious Diseases (St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital)

Junior or Senior Group Leader – Immunology/Infection/Inflammation (Center of Pathophysiology of Toulouse Purpan)


Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell and Cancer Biology (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)


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