Volume 1.13 | Jun 12

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.13 June 12, 2013
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     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Staphylococcus aureus LukAB Cytotoxin Kills Human Neutrophils by Targeting the CD11b Subunit of the Integrin Mac-1
Investigators describe the identification of CD11b, the α subunit of the αM/β2 integrin (CD11b/CD18), macrophage-1 (Mac-1) antigen, or complement receptor 3, as a cellular receptor for leukocidin A/B (LukAB), an important toxin that contributes to S. aureus killing of human neutrophils. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV

PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Persistent Infection with Crohn’s Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive Escherichia Coli Leads to Chronic Inflammation and Intestinal Fibrosis
Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli are associated with human Crohn’s disease; however, their role in intestinal immunopathology is unclear because of the lack of an animal model compatible with chronic timescales. The authors established chronic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli infection in streptomycin-treated conventional mice, enabling the study of host response and immunopathology. [Nat Commun] Abstract | Press Release

HSV-1 Exploits the Innate Immune Scavenger Receptor MARCO to Enhance Epithelial Adsorption and Infection
Researchers demonstrated that a cell surface scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), previously thought to enhance antiviral defense by enabling nucleic acid recognition, is usurped by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and functions together with heparan sulphate proteoglycans to mediate adsorption to epithelial cells. [Nat Commun] Abstract | Press Release

Suppression of Host Adaptive Immune Responses by Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Role of Interleukin 10 and Type 1 Regulatory T Cells
Scientists showed that N. gonorrhoeae strongly induced the production of interleukin (IL)-10 and type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells. Blockade of IL-10 and Tr1 cell activity enhanced both T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th2-dependent adaptive immune responses and Th17-governed innate responses to N. gonorrhoeae. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Therapeutic DNA Vaccination Using In Vivo Electroporation Followed by Standard of Care Therapy in Patients With Genotype 1 Chronic Hepatitis C
Clearance of infections caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) correlates with HCV-specific T cell function. Scientists therefore evaluated therapeutic vaccination in 12 patients with chronic HCV infection. [Mol Ther]
Full Article

HIV

Critical Roles for Akt Kinase in Controlling HIV Envelope-Mediated Depletion of CD4 T Cells
Investigators examined whether HIV envelope (Env) signaling through cellular receptors is responsible for death among uninfected CD4+/CCR5+ T cells and what are the effects of Env on CD4+/CCR5-negative cells that might impact HIV infection. The outcomes of Env binding are analyzed in terms of signal transduction and the effects on cell activation or cell death pathways. [Retrovirology] Abstract | Full Article

Impaired CD4+ T Cell Restoration in the Small vs. Large Intestine of HIV-1+ South Africans Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy
The authors assessed the ability of NRTI/NNRTI treatment to restore CD4+ T cells in the intestine of African AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea and/or weight loss. Blood and biopsies were collected from HIV-1-infected South Africans prior to (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon) and after three (duodenum) and six (duodenum, colon) months of combination antiretroviral therapy. CD4+, CD8+ and CD38+CD8+ T cells were quantified by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, HIV-1 RNA by the Nuclisens assay. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

RIG-I Activation Inhibits HIV Replication in Macrophages
Scientists examined whether RIG-I activation can inhibit HIV replication in macrophages. They showed that the stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages with 5′ppp-dsRNA, a synthetic ligand for RIG-I, induced the expression of RIG-I, interferon (IFN)-α/β, and several interferon regulatory factors, key regulators of the IFN signaling pathway. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

Superior Control of HIV-1 Replication by CD8+ T Cells Targeting Conserved Epitopes: Implications for HIV Vaccine Design
Researchers comprehensively mapped HIV-1 CD8+ T cell epitope-specificities in 23 ART-naïve individuals during early infection and computed their conservation score by three different methods (prevalence, entropy and conseq) on clade-B and group-M sequence alignments. The majority of CD8+ T cell responses were directed against variable epitopes. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS

Networking at the Level of Host Immunity: Immune Cell Interactions during Persistent Viral Infections
The authors describe the cellular relationships and interactions that determine the outcome of initial infection and highlight immune targets for therapeutic intervention to prevent or treat persistent infections. Ultimately, these findings will further the understanding of the immunologic basis of persistent viral infection and likely lead to strategies to treat human viral infections. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract

Counterpoise between the Microbiome, Host Immune Activation and Pathology
Recent technological advances have shed new light on the microbiome at distinct anatomical locations and uncovered the role of additional microbial symbionts, including the virome and endogenous retroelements. Together, they have revealed interactions more intricate than previously recognized. The authors review recent advances in their knowledge of this collective microbiome and the interactions with the immune system of their host. [Curr Opin Immunol] Abstract

Immune Response to HIV
This review discusses the different components of the HIV-specific immune response elicited by the infection, the kinetics of these responses during primary infection and the changes following transition to the chronic phase of infection, and the functional profile of ‘effective’ versus ‘noneffective’ HIV-specific immune responses. [Curr Opin HIV AIDS] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

INDUSTRY NEWS

UCL Awarded £11.1M towards New Institute of Immunity and Transplantation
University College London (UCL) has been awarded £11.1 million from the UK Research Partnership Investment Fund towards the cost of the new UCL Institute for Immunity and Transplantation at the Royal Free Hospital in Hampstead. The new research facilities will enable world-leading research and clinical trials to develop new treatments and patient therapies for a range of chronic diseases such as cancer, HIV and diabetes. [University College London] Press Release

$18 Million to Study Deadly Secrets of Flu, Ebola, West Nile Viruses

In an effort to sort out why some viruses such as influenza, Ebola and West Nile are so lethal, a team of U.S. researchers plans a comprehensive effort to model how humans respond to these viral pathogens. The study will be led by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, a University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine professor of pathobiological sciences and an expert on influenza and Ebola viruses. Teams from Washington University in St. Louis and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Wash., also will play key roles in the new $18.13 million National Institutes of Health-funded study. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] Press Release

Phase II Funding Approved for Two HIV Grants in Namibia
The Global Fund Board has approved funding for Phase II of two HIV grants to Namibia. In so doing, the Board was acting on the recommendations of the Grant Approvals Committee (GAC). The principal recipients (PRs) for the two grants are the Ministry of Health and Social Services and the Namibia Network of AIDS Service Organizations. The GAC said that both PRs made significant progress in Phase I of the grants, but that they also faced some challenges. [Adispan] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS
NEW 8th Annual ImVacS: The Immunotherapeutics and Vaccine Summit
August 13-15, 2013
Boston, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
JOB OPPORTUNITIES

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology Research (National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Responses against HIV (HIV Pathogenesis Program/University KwaZulu Natal & Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Senior Clinical Immunologist – Infectious Disease Immunology (Statens Serum Institut, Denmark)


Postdoctoral Research Associate – Infectious Diseases (St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital)

Faculty Positions – Basic and Translational Human Immunology (Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute of Florida)

Junior or Senior Group Leader – Immunology/Infection/Inflammation (Center of Pathophysiology of Toulouse Purpan)


Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell and Cancer Biology (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)


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