Volume 1.10 | May 22

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.10 May 22, 2013
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TOP STORY
Resistance to Visceral Leishmaniasis: New Mechanisms Involved
Researchers elucidated new molecular mechanisms involved in resistance to visceral leishmaniasis, a serious parasitic infection. They showed that dectin-1 and mannose receptors participate in the protection against the parasite responsible for this infection, by triggering an inflammatory response, while the DC-SIGN receptor facilitates the penetration of the pathogen and its proliferation in macrophages [Press release from CNRS discussing online prepublication in Immunity] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Inflammatory Flt3l Is Essential to Mobilize Dendritic Cells and for T Cell Responses during Plasmodium Infection
The authors describe an innate sensing pathway triggered by Plasmodium infection that regulates dendritic cell homeostasis and adaptive immunity through Flt3 ligand (Flt3l) release. [Nat Med] Abstract

Cochlin Produced by Follicular Dendritic Cells Promotes Antibacterial Innate Immunity
In models of lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, Coch-/- mice showed reduced survival linked to defects in local cytokine production, recruitment of immune effector cells, and bacterial clearance. By producing cochlin, follicular dendritic cells thus contribute to the innate immune response in defense against bacteria. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Natural Killer Cells Are Required for Extramedullary Hematopoiesis following Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection
Investigating splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) in mice infected with murine cytomegalovirus, researchers found that, while cells of the adaptive immune system were dispensable for EMH, natural killer cells were essential. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Memory CD8+ T Cells Can Outsource IFN-γ Production but Not Cytolytic Killing for Antiviral Protection
Researchers showed that protection from ectromelia virus infection after vaccinia virus immunization depends on the initial memory cell frequency and ability of expanded secondary effectors to kill infected targets in a perforin-dependent manner. Although interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is essential for antiviral protection, it can be produced by either secondary effectors or concomitant primary effector CD8+ T cells recruited to the response. Thus, during lethal virus challenge, memory CD8+ T cells are required for cytolytic killing of infected cells, but primary effectors can play important roles by producing IFN-γ. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Clinical Use of Colistin Induces Cross-Resistance to Host Antimicrobials in Acinetobacter baumannii
Colistin is one of the last-line antibiotics for treating A. baumannii infections; however, colistin-resistant strains are becoming increasingly common. This cationic antibiotic attacks negatively charged bacterial membranes in a manner similar to that seen with cationic antimicrobials of the innate immune system. Researchers set out to determine if the increasing use of colistin, and emergence of colistin-resistant strains, is concomitant with the generation of cross-resistance to host cationic antimicrobials. [mBio]
Abstract | Press Release

HIV

HIV-1 Exploits CCR5 Conformational Heterogeneity to Escape Inhibition by Chemokines
Researchers showed that different CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) conformations at the cell surface are differentially engaged by chemokines and gp120, making chemokines weaker inhibitors of HIV infection than would be expected from their binding affinity constants for CCR5. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Monocyte-Derived IL-5 Reduces TNF Production by Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4 T Cells during SIV/M. tuberculosis Coinfection
Although it is established that HIV reduces Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cell responses, the causes of this dysfunction are not known. Investigators used the cynomolgus macaque model of tuberculosis to demonstrate that ex vivo SIV reduces the frequency of M. tuberculosis-specific TNF and IFN-γ-producing T cells within 24 hours after infection. [J Immunol] Abstract

Adaptor Protein-1 (AP-1) Promotes Cross-Presentation through the Same Tyrosine Signal in MHC-I that Is Targeted by HIV-1
In antigen presenting cells, researchers showed that HIV Nef disrupts cross-presentation by MHC-I containing the tyrosine signal but does not affect cross-presentation by MHC-I containing the HLA-C cytoplasmic tail. Thus, they provided evidence for two separable cross-presentation pathways, only one of which is targeted by HIV. [J Virol] Abstract

Blocking of Integrins Inhibits HIV-1 Infection of Human Cervical Mucosa Immune Cells with Free and Complement-Opsonized Virions
Scientists used cervical explants to study HIV-1 transmission, the effects of opsonization on infectivity, and how infectivity can be prevented. Complement opsonization enhanced HIV-1 infection of dendritic cells compared with that by free HIV-1, but this increased infection was not observed with CD4+ T cells. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

A Single HIV-1 Cluster and a Skewed Immune Homeostasis Drive the Early Spread of HIV among Resting CD4+ Cell Subsets within One Month Post-Infection
The authors studied the immune distribution, diversity, and inducibility of total HIV-DNA among the following cell subsets: monocytes, peripheral blood activated and resting CD4 T cells, long-lived (naive and central-memory) and short-lived (transitional-memory and effector-memory cells) resting CD4+T cells from 12 acutely-infected individuals recruited at a median 36 days from infection. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS

HIV-1 Fusion Protein Exerts Complex Immunosuppressive Effects
The gp41 fusion protein of the HIV-1 envelope mediates virus entry by membrane fusion and also functions as an inhibitor of T cell activation. Here, the authors review the recent studies suggesting that some of the gp41 immunosuppressive processes are initiated by novel motifs, located within the hydrophobic regions of the protein. [Trends Biochem Sci] Abstract

A Small Jab A Big Effect: Nonspecific Immunomodulation by Vaccines
New research suggests that the nonspecific effects of vaccines are related to cross-reactivity of the adaptive immune system with unrelated pathogens, and to training of the innate immune system through epigenetic reprogramming. Hence, epidemiological findings are backed by immunological data. This generates a new understanding of the immune system and about how it can be modulated by vaccines to impact the general resistance to disease. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

The Prospects and Challenges of Universal Vaccines for Influenza
When novel viruses appear, matched vaccines are not likely to be available in time for the first wave of a pandemic. Yet, the enormous diversity of influenza A viruses in nature makes it impossible to predict which subtype or strain will cause the next pandemic. Several recent scientific advances have generated renewed enthusiasm and hope for universal vaccines that will induce broad protection from a range of influenza viruses. [Trends Microbiol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

INDUSTRY NEWS

Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc. Announces Its Approach to Developing Human Antibody Therapeutics against MRSA Receives Continued Support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc. announced that its Fast-Track Advanced Technology Small Business Technology Transfer Research grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases supporting the development of novel human antibody therapeutics to combat Staphylococcus aureus infections, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), was renewed for the second year of a two year Phase I grant award. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

Lyme Research Alliance Awards $500,000 in Grants
The Lyme Research Alliance (LRA) announced it will award six grants worth $500,000 to researchers focused on the epidemiology of, and treatment and cure for Lyme and other tick-borne diseases. LRA’s scientific agenda encompasses two areas critical to all those affected by Lyme disease: the discovery of an accurate and accessible diagnostic test, and the development of effective treatments for long-term or chronic Lyme disease. [PRWeb] Press Release

GADVASU Gets International Patent on Innovation in Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU), Ludhiana has been granted a South African patent on an innovation in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The new diagnostic test called Superagglutination test provides a solution to the problem of false positive and false negative results common with the available diagnostic tests and kits employed for diagnosis of a large number of infectious diseases of animals and humans, including important zoonotic diseases like Brucellosis and Salmonellosis, transmissible from animals to humans. [Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University]
Press Release

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POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW 32nd Annual American Society for Virology  
July 20-24, 2013
University Park, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

NEW Postdoctoral Researcher – Xenophagy and Bacterial Avoidance (Goethe University)

NEW Assistant / Associate Professor – HIV and Tuberculosis (Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Canada Research Chair – Immunology of Chronic Viral Infections & Immune Senescence (Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell and Cancer Biology (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Host Pathogen Interaction (Columbia Initiative for Systems Biology / Columbia University)


Postdoctoral Position – Immunology and Vaccinology (Université de Liège)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Infection by Influenza Virus (National Institute for Medical Research, Medical Research Council)


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