Volume 1.07 | May 1

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.07 May 1, 2013
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     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Role of Tissue Protection in Lethal Respiratory Viral-Bacterial Coinfection
To explore the balance between tolerance and immune response in a situation that has high clinical relevance, researchers studied mice that were infected with influenza virus and Legionella pneumophila bacteria, which cause pneumonia. [Press release from Howard Hughes Medical Institute discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract

How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles

PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Systems Scale Interactive Exploration Reveals Quantitative and Qualitative Differences in Response to Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccines
Systems immunology approaches were employed to investigate innate and adaptive immune responses to influenza and pneumococcal vaccines. These two non-live vaccines showed different magnitudes of transcriptional responses at different time points after vaccination. [ImmunityFull Article | Press Release

Nitric Oxide-Mediated Regulation of Ferroportin-1 Controls Macrophage Iron Homeostasis and Immune Function in Salmonella Infection
Investigators found that nitric oxide (NO) up-regulated the expression of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1), the major cellular iron exporter, in mouse and human cells. NO synthase 2 (Nos2)-/- macrophages displayed increased iron content due to reduced Fpn1 expression and allowed for an enhanced iron acquisition by the intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Cell Host Response to Infection with Novel Human Coronavirus EMC Predicts Potential Antivirals and Important Differences with SARS Coronavirus
The authors investigated whether human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC) and SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) induce similar or distinct host responses after infection of a human lung epithelial cell line. Both viruses induced a similar activation of pattern recognition receptors and the interleukin 17 pathway, but HCoV-EMC specifically down-regulated the expression of several genes within the antigen presentation pathway, including both type I and II major histocompatibility complex genes. [mBio] Abstract | Press Release

Allergic Airway Disease in Mice Alters T and B Cell Responses during an Acute Respiratory Poxvirus Infection
Investigators showed that BALB/c mice with preexisting airway disease infected with vaccinia virus developed more severe pulmonary inflammation, higher lung virus titers and greater weight loss compared with mice inoculated with virus alone. This enhanced viremia was observed despite increased pulmonary recruitment of CD8+ T effectors, greater IFNγ production in the lung, and high serum levels of anti-viral antibodies. [PLoS One] Full Article

HIV


M1 Polarization of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages Restricts Pre-and Post-Integration Steps of HIV-1 Replication
Researchers investigated whether a post-entry restriction of virus replication is also induced by M1 polarization of monocyte-derived macrophages. [AIDS] Abstract

Early Gag Immunodominance of the HIV-Specific T-Cell Response during Acute/Early Infection Is Associated with Higher CD8+ T-Cell Antiviral Activity, and Correlates with the Preservation of the CD4+ T-Cell Compartment
Scientists examined multiple functional aspects (specificity, ex vivo viral inhibitory activity -VIA- and polyfunctionality) of the HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell subset arising early after infection, and their association with disease progression markers. [J Virol] Abstract

Comparison of Viral Env Proteins from Acute and Chronic Infections of Subtype C Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Identifies Differences In Glycosylation and CCR5 Utilization and Suggests a New Strategy for Immunogen Design
Researchers compared phenotypic and genetic variation in HIV-1 env genes from subjects in acute/early infection to subjects with chronic infections in the context of subtype C heterosexual transmission. They found that the transmitted viruses all used CCR5 and required high levels of CD4 to infect target cells, suggesting selection for replication in T cells after transmission and not macrophages. [J Virol] Abstract

Estradiol Reduces Susceptibility of CD4+ T Cells and Macrophages to HIV-Infection
The authors evaluated the direct effect of 17-β-estradiol and ethinyl estradiol in HIV-infection of CD4+ T-cells and macrophages. Purified CD4+ T-cells and monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in vitro from peripheral blood and infected with R5 and X4 viruses. [PLoS One] Full Article

HIV-Infected Patients Show Impaired Cellular Immune Response to Influenza Vaccination Compared to Healthy Subjects
Investigators analyzed cellular and humoral immune response in 81 HIV-infected and 30 HIV-negative subjects, before and four weeks after receiving a single dose of trivalent MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine. [Vaccine] Abstract

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REVIEWS

Role of the Gut Microbiota in Immunity and Inflammatory Disease
Understanding the interaction of the microbiota with pathogens and the host might provide new insights into the pathogenesis of disease, as well as novel avenues for preventing and treating intestinal and systemic disorders. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Interplay between Viruses and Host Sumoylation Pathways
The authors review recent advances, summarizing information on sumoylated viral proteins, the varied ways in which viruses engage with small ubiquitin-like modifier-related pathways, and the consequences of these interactions for viral replication and engagement with innate and intrinsic immunity. [Nat Rev Microbiol] Abstract

Pathogenesis and Treatment of HIV Infection: The Cellular, the Immune System and the Neuroendocrine Systems Perspective
The authors provide an up-to-date overview of HIV-host interactions at the cellular, the immune system and the neuroendocrine systems level. [Int Rev Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

INDUSTRY NEWS

NIH Discontinues Immunizations in HIV Vaccine Study
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), will stop administering injections in its HVTN 505 clinical trial of an investigational HIV vaccine regimen because an independent data and safety monitoring board found during a scheduled interim review that the vaccine regimen did not prevent HIV infection nor reduce viral load among vaccine recipients who became infected with HIV. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases] Press Release

Diehl, UB Team Help Develop Immunology Ontologies for National Institutes of Health
Alexander D. Diehl, PhD is contributing his expertise to a University of Buffalo (UB) team developing ontologies-uniform, agreed-upon systems of meaning-related to immunology and infectious disease. [University at Buffalo] Press Release

INCIVO® Receives Positive Opinion from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) for Twice Daily Dosing for Treatment of Genotype-1 Hepatitis C Virus

Janssen Infectious Diseases-Diagnostics BVBA, announced that CHMP of the European Medicines Agency adopted a positive opinion recommending the approval of twice daily dosing of INCIVO®, a direct acting antiviral for the treatment of chronic genotype-1 hepatitis C virus, in combination with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

STEMCELL Technologies Inc. Obtains License from iPS Academia Japan for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technologies
STEMCELL Technologies Inc. has signed an agreement to license iPS Academia Japan’s induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell) technologies. This agreement will enable STEMCELL Technologies to develop media that are optimized for cellular reprogramming, further expanding its extensive portfolio of products designed to facilitate cutting-edge pluripotent stem cell research. [STEMCELL Technologies Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology: Immunity & Tolerance
May 29-June 3, 2013
Cold Spring Harbor, United States

NEW
SMi: Cancer Vaccines
September 18-19, 2013
London, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

NEW Postdoctoral Research Associate – Immunologist (University of Edinburgh)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (California Institute for Biomedical Research)

Postdoctoral Fellow (Columbia Initiative for Systems Biology / Columbia University)

Postdoctoral Fellows (Louisiana State University (LSU))

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology and Vaccinology (Université de Liège)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (New York University)

Postdoctoral Scientist (National Institute for Medical Research, Medical Research Council)

Director – Basic Sciences Program (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/National Institutes of Health)

Assistant Scientist (University of Wisconsin – Madison Primate Research Center)


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