Volume 1.02 | Mar 27

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.02 March 27, 2013
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TOP STORY
A Molecular Basis for the Control of Preimmune Escape Variants by HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cells
Scientists investigated protective HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses directed against the immunodominant p24 Gag-derived epitope KK10 presented by human leukocyte antigen-B2705. They found that cross-reactive CD8+ T cell clonotypes were mobilized to counter the rapid emergence of HIV-1 variants that can directly affect T cell receptor recognition. [Immunity] Abstract | Press Release

Whitepaper: Automated Cell Isolation Enables More Relevant HIV Models

PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Induction of ICOS+CXCR3+CXCR5+ TH Cells Correlates with Antibody Responses to Influenza Vaccination
Researchers identified the type of CD4+ T cells associated with protective antibody responses after seasonal influenza vaccinations. The administration of trivalent split- virus influenza vaccines induced a temporary increase of CD4+ T cells expressing ICOS, which peaked at day 7, as did plasmablasts. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

CD62L Is Critical for Maturation and Accumulation of Murine Hepatic NK Cells in Response to Viral Infection
Investigators found that murine NK cells in various organs could be divided into CD62L and CD62L+ subsets, the latter of which were less abundant in the liver and exhibited a relatively mature NK cell phenotype and a stronger cytotoxic function. [J Immunol] Abstract

Enhanced Immunogenicity of a Tricomponent Mannan Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine Targeted to Dendritic Cells via Dectin-1 by Incorporating β-Glucan
In a previous attempt to generate a protective vaccine against Candida albicans, a β-mannan tetanus toxoid conjugate showed poor immunogenicity in mice. To improve the specific activation toward the fungal pathogen, the authors aimed to target Dectin-1, a pattern-recognition receptor expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. [J Immunol] Abstract

M2e-Displaying Virus-Like Particles with Associated RNA Promote T Helper 1 Type Adaptive Immunity against Influenza A
The ectodomain of influenza A matrix protein 2 (M2e) is a candidate for a universal influenza A vaccine. The authors used recombinant Hepatitis B core antigen to produce virus-like particles presenting M2e (M2e- VLPs). They produced the VLPs with and without entrapped nucleic acids and compared their immunogenicity and protective efficacy. [PLoS One] Full Article

The Degree of Helicobacter pylori Inflammation Is Manipulated by the Pre-Infection Host Microbiota
Researchers demonstrated that one previously unappreciated parameter influencing H. pylori disease outcome is variation in pre-infection host microbiota. Utilizing a mouse model, they altered the microbiota by antibiotic treatment and found that these alterations resulted in significantly lowered H. pylori-triggered inflammation. [Infect Immun] Abstract | Press Release

HIV

Translating HIV Sequences into Quantitative Fitness Landscapes Predicts Viral Vulnerabilities for Rational Immunogen Design
Using computational models, scientists have developed an approach to translate available viral sequence data into quantitative landscapes of viral fitness as a function of the amino acid sequences of its constituent proteins. Predictions emerging from their computationally defined landscapes for the proteins of HIV-1 clade B Gag were positively tested against new in vitro fitness measurements and were consistent with previously defined in vitro measurements and clinical observations. [Immunity] Abstract | Press Release

Engineering HIV Envelope Protein to Activate Germline B Cell Receptors of Broadly Neutralizing Anti-CD4 Binding Site Antibodies
Scientists showed that envelope glycoprotein (Env) immunogens fail to engage the germline-reverted forms of known broadly neutralizing antibodies that target the CD4-binding site. However, they found that the elimination of a conserved glycosylation site located in Loop D and two glycosylation sites located in variable region 5 of Env allows Env-binding to, and activation of, B cells expressing the germline-reverted BCRs of two potent broadly neutralizing antibodies, VRC01 and NIH45-46. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Influenza, But Not HIV-Specific CTL Epitopes, Elicits Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) Reactions in HIV-Infected Patients
The authors studied the possibility of using defined HLA-A*02:01-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes from influenza matrix protein (GL9, GILGFVFTL) and HIV Gag p17 (SL9, SLYNTVATL) to elicit a cutaneous DTH reaction. Their results show that the GL9 but not the SL9 epitope was able to induce a DTH reaction.  [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Interleukin-27 Is a Potent Inhibitor of cis HIV-1 Replication in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells via a Type I Interferon-Independent Pathway
Interleukin-27 (IL-27) has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Investigators examined whether IL-27 has a similar inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication in dendritic cells (DCs). Monocytes were differentiated into immature DCs and mature DCs with standard techniques using a combination of GM-CSF, IL-4 and LPS. [PLoS One] Full Article


Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV

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REVIEWS

T Cell-Mediated Host Immune Defenses in the Lung
This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding how T lymphocytes mediate pulmonary host defenses against bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. [Annu Rev Immunol] Abstract

The Immune Response in Tuberculosis
This review aims to summarize what is known about the immune response in tuberculosis, in human disease, and in a range of experimental models, all of which are essential to advancing the mechanistic knowledge base of the host-pathogen interactions that influence disease outcome. [Annu Rev Immunol] Abstract


Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

INDUSTRY NEWS

Soligenix Announces Significant Progress with ThermoVax™ Towards the Development of Heat Stable Vaccines
Soligenix, Inc. announced  key progress in the development of ThermoVax™, its proprietary vaccine thermostabilization technology. Several complementary preclinical studies have indicated the potential for high temperature stability for a minimum of six months and increased potency of subunit vaccines formulated with ThermoVax™. [Soligenix, Inc.] Press Release

WHO Congratulates Two Leading HIV Scientists Winning 2013 Noguchi Prize

The World Health Organization (WHO) welcomes the Government of Japan’s decision to award Dr Peter Piot from Belgium and Dr Alex Godwin Coutinho from Uganda with the 2013 Hideyo Noguchi Africa Prize. First awarded in 2008, the Hidyeo Noguchi Prize is the Government of Japan’s top award to honor individuals with outstanding achievements in combating infectious diseases in Africa and worldwide. [World Health Organization] Press Release

Regulatory Update: GlaxoSmithKline Receives Complete Response from FDA for Candidate Pandemic H5N1 Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine

GlaxoSmithKline announced that it has received a Complete Response letter from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in response to the Biologics License Application for its Pandemic Influenza A Virus Monovalent Adjuvanted candidate vaccine, referred to as Q-Pan H5N1. The candidate vaccine is intended for active immunization for the prevention of disease in adults 18 years of age and older who are at increased risk of exposure to the H5N1 influenza virus subtype contained in the vaccine. [GlaxoSmithKline plc]
Press Release

POLICY NEWS

United States Senator Tammy Baldwin Hails Committee Passage of Bipartisan HOPE Act
The Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Committee passed bipartisan legislation cosponsored by United States Senator Tammy Baldwin, a member of the committee. Baldwin praised her colleagues for their support of the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act in the HELP Committee executive session. The HOPE Act lifts the current ban on medical research of HIV positive organs and provides for a study on the safety and effectiveness of HIV positive to HIV positive organ donation by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. [Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee, United States] Press Release

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW The Jackson Laboratory: Lupus – Explore Our Innovative Suite of Mouse Research Strains, Services and Expertise
April 4, 1:00PM (ET in US)
Webinar


NEW Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology: The Innate Immune Response in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease
May 10-15, 2013
Ouro Preto, Brazil

Visit
our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

PhD Studentship – Vaccine Development for Bacterial Infectious Disease (University of Calgary, Department of Production Animal Health)


Director – Vaccine Research Center (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)


Faculty Position – Pediatric Biology, Biodesign, Ecology, Human Immunology and Infectious Disease Areas (Translational Health Science and Technology Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (CHUV Lausanne)


Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (California Institute for Biomedical Research)


Postdoctoral Fellows (Louisiana State University (LSU))

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology and Vaccinology (Université de Liège)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (New York University)


Recruit Top Talent: Reach more than 50,000 potential candidates by posting your organization’s career opportunities on the Connexon Creative Job Board at no cost.

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