Volume 1.01 | Mar 20

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.01 March 20, 2013
IIDN_EloquaHeader
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
Cell Therapy News on Facebook  Immunology of Infectious Disease News on Twitter
TOP STORY
Post-Treatment HIV-1 Controllers with a Long-Term Virological Remission after the Interruption of Early Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy ANRS VISCONTI Study
The authors identified 14 HIV patients (post-treatment controllers [PTCs]) whose viremia remained controlled for several years after the interruption of prolonged combination antiretroviral therapy initiated during the primary infection. Most PTCs lacked the protective HLA B alleles that are overrepresented in spontaneous HIV controllers (HICs); instead, they carried risk-associated HLA alleles that were largely absent among the HICs. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV

PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

Activation of the Innate Signaling Molecule MAVS by Bunyavirus Infection Upregulates the Adaptor Protein SARM1, Leading to Neuronal Death
By using in vitro studies in primary neurons and in vivo studies in mice, investigators showed that La Crosse virus infection induced the RNA helicase, RIG-I, and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) signaling pathway, resulting in upregulation of the sterile alpha and TIR-containing motif 1 (SARM1), an adaptor molecule that they found to be directly involved in neuronal damage. These studies provide an innate-immune signaling mechanism for virus-induced neuronal death and reveal potential targets for development of therapeutics to treat encephalitic viral infections. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Cooperativity between CD8+ T Cells, Non-Neutralizing Antibodies, and Alveolar Macrophages Is Important for Heterosubtypic Influenza Virus Immunity
The authors demonstrated using a recombinant influenza virus expressing the LCMV GP33-41 epitope that influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cells and virus-specific non-neutralizing antibodies each are relatively ineffective at conferring heterosubtypic protective immunity alone. However when combined, virus-specific CD8 T cells and non-neutralizing antibodies cooperatively elicit robust protective immunity. [PLoS Pathog]
Full Article | Press Release


Th2 Cell-Intrinsic Hypo-Responsiveness Determines Susceptibility to Helminth Infection
Researchers used IL-4gfp reporter mice to demonstrate that during chronic helminth infection with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis, CD4+ Th2 cells are conditioned towards an intrinsically hypo-responsive phenotype, characterized by a loss of functional ability to proliferate and produce the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-2. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

IL-22 Modulates IL-17A Production and Controls Inflammation and Tissue Damage in Experimental Dengue Infection
Scientists assessed the contribution of IL-22 and IL-17A in the pathogenesis of experimental dengue infection using a mouse-adapted Dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2 strain that causes a disease that resembles severe dengue in humans. They showed that IL-22 and IL-17A are produced upon DENV-2 infection in immune-competent mice. Infected IL-22−/− mice had increased lethality, neutrophil accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in tissues, notably IL-17A. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

HIV

Interferon Block to HIV-1 Transduction in Macrophages despite SAMHD1 Degradation and High Deoxynucleoside Triphosphates Supply
Investigators tested whether interferon-α affects SAMHD1 expression, Vpx-induced SAMHD1 degradation, Vpx-mediated rescue of HIV-1 transduction and the deoxynucleoside triphosphate supply in monocyte-derived macrophages. [Retrovirology] Full Article

The Phenotype of the Cryptococcus-Specific CD4 Memory T-Cell Response Is Associated with Disease Severity and Outcome in HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis
Cryptococcal-specific peripheral CD4 T-cell responses were measured in 44 patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis at baseline and during follow-up. Responses were assessed following ex-vivo cryptococcal mannoprotein stimulation using 13-color flow-cytometric analysis. [J Infect Dis] Abstract


Therapeutic Vaccination Expands and Improves the Function of the HIV-Specific Memory T Cell Repertoire
Seventeen HIV-infected individuals with viral loads <50 copies/ml and CD4 T cell counts >350 cells/µl were randomized to the vaccine or placebo arm. Vaccine recipients received three intramuscular injections of HIV DNA coding for clade B Gag, Pol, Nef, and clade A, B, C Env, followed by a replication-deficient Ad5 boost encoding all DNA vaccine antigens, except Nef. Humoral, total T cell and CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were studied pre- and post-vaccination. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Use of G-Protein Coupled and Uncoupled CCR5 Receptors by CCR5 Inhibitor-Resistant and -Sensitive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Variants
Researchers investigated whether the action of Vicriviroc (VVC) against inhibitor-sensitive and -resistant viruses is affected by whether or not CCR5 is coupled to G-proteins such as Gαi. Treating CD4+ T cells with pertussis toxin to uncouple the Gαi subunit from CCR5 increased the potency of VVC against the sensitive viruses and revealed that VVC-resistant viruses use the inhibitor-bound form of Gαi-coupled CCR5 more efficiently than uncoupled CCR5. [J Virol] Abstract


Characterization of Plasmablasts in the Blood of HIV-Infected Viremic Individuals: Evidence for Non-Specific Immune Activation
Scientists showed that only a small fraction of plasmablasts in the blood of viremic individuals is HIV-specific. Assessment of plasmablast immunoglobulin isotype distribution revealed increased IgG+ plasmablasts in early and most prominently during chronic HIV viremia, contrasting with a predominantly IgA+ plasmablast profile in HIV-negative individuals or in aviremic HIV-infected individuals on treatment. [J Virol] Abstract

Learn more about the new smartphone app for human blood cell frequencies

REVIEWS

T-bet and Gata3 in Controlling Type 1 and Type 2 Immunity Mediated by Innate Lymphoid Cells
The authors review the emerging roles of the transcription factors T-bet and Gata3 in the development, lineage specification and function of distinct innate lymphoid cell lineages. They also highlight the requirement of these transcriptional programs for the control of infections and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. [Curr Opin Immunol] Abstract

Immune Control of HIV-1 Reservoirs
This review discusses the recent major advances in the understanding of how host immune defenses contribute to HIV reservoir control. [Curr Opin HIV AIDS] Abstract

The Immunology of Leishmania/HIV Co-Infection
The authors present an overview of the immunopathogenesis of Leishmania/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and the implications of this interaction on Leishmania and HIV disease outcome. [Immunol Res] Abstract

SCIENCE NEWS
Type 1 Diabetes May be Linked to Infectious Disease Burden
Countries with lower mortality from infectious disease exhibit higher rates of type 1 diabetes, according to a new study. The findings, collating data from three major international studies suggest that the as yet unexplained global rise in type 1 diabetes may be linked to reduced exposure to pathogens in early life. [Press release from the Society for Endocrinology discussing research presented at the Society for Endocrinology BES 2013 Annual Conference, Harrogate] Press Release | Abstract
INDUSTRY NEWS

Sinovac Reports Preliminary Top-Line Results from Phase III Clinical Trial for EV71 Vaccine Candidate Against Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
Sinovac Biotech Ltd. announced preliminary top-line data from its Phase III clinical trial assessing the efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of the Company’s proprietary Enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine against hand, foot and mouth disease. [Sinovac Biotech Ltd.] Press Release

£1.7 Million Boost for Research Into Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases
Research at the University of Dundee targeting the cause of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, which affect millions of people has been boosted by a grant of almost £1.7 million from the Wellcome Trust. The work is aimed at unraveling the workings of a genetic pathway – known as the MyD88 signaling pathway – which operates as part of our innate immune system. [University of Dundee] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology: Immune Activation in HIV Infection- Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications
April 3-8, 2013
Breckenridge, United States

NEW
Immunology Symposium 2013
April 28-30, 2013
Buonas, Switzerland

Visit
our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

PhD Studentship – Vaccine Development for Bacterial Infectious Disease (University of Calgary, Department of Production Animal Health)


Director – Vaccine Research Center (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)


Faculty Position – Pediatric Biology, Biodesign, Ecology, Human Immunology and Infectious Disease Areas (Translational Health Science and Technology Institute)


Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (CHUV Lausanne)


Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (California Institute for Biomedical Research)


Postdoctoral Fellows (Louisiana State University (LSU))

Postdoctoral Research Associate (The University of Liverpool)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology and Vaccinology (Université de Liège)


Recruit Top Talent: Reach more than 50,000 potential candidates by posting your organization’s career opportunities on the Connexon Creative Job Board at no cost.

Have we missed an important article or publication in Immunology of Infectious Disease News?

Click here to submit!

Comments or Suggestions? Email [email protected] with your feedback.

Learn more about Immunology of Infectious Disease News: Archives | Events | Contact Us